The clinical expression of cerebral venous thrombosis is variable, with headache as the most frequent presenting symptom. Once the blood has done its job, it collects into small veins known as cerebral veins that. Data from large international registries published in the past. Thrombosis of the cerebral venous system, also known as cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis cvt or dural sinus thrombosis, is a rare condition, with an estimated annual incidence of 24 per million. Furthermore, diagnostic imaging features can be subtle. Current techniques, spectrum of findings, and diagnostic pitfalls1 learning objectives for test 2 after reading this article and taking the test, the reader will be able to. It can be attributable to 1 temporary risk factors and 2 permanent inherited ones.
Cerebral vein thrombosis, india, cvt, intracranial embolism or. The remainder of the clinical examination was normal. Oct 27, 2017 cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is a blood clot of a cerebral vein in the brain. Etiological factors are often subclinical forms of several common thrombophilic states occurring together, rather than the typical inherited and rare causes. Apr 17, 2019 cerebral venous thrombosis cvt refers to thrombus formation in either the deep or superficial venous drainage systems of the brain.
Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is an uncommon cause of stroke with extremely varied clinical. Cerebral venous thrombosis, which includes dural sinus thrombosis and the more unusual isolated cortical venous thrombosis cvt, is an established cause of parenchymal hemorrhage. Aug 15, 2003 cerebral vein thrombosis is a relatively rare but severe thrombotic manifestation with a high mortality rate, 1 the potential to cause disability, and the tendency to recur. Cerebral vein thrombosis is a relatively rare but severe thrombotic manifestation with a high mortality rate, 1 the potential to cause disability, and the tendency to recur. In 2 patients death was caused by enlarging hemorrhagic infarcts. Cerebral thrombosis definition of cerebral thrombosis by. Hyperhomocysteinemia in cerebral vein thrombosis blood. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unexplained cns disorders of sudden onset. Longterm outcomes of patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. Causes and predictors of death in cerebral venous thrombosis. Treatment options are limited and are mostly based on consensus. Cerebral venous thrombosis in postlumbar puncture intracranial hypotension.
Mri and magnetic resonance venography are excellent diagnostic tools when cerebral vein thrombosis is suspected. Decompressive hemicraniectomy in severe cerebral venous. Secondary outcomes were cerebral venous recanalization and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events. Because acute cerebral venous thrombosis cvt might lead to venous stasis, which could result in cardiac stress, it is important to evaluate whether ctn elevation occurs in patients with cvt. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is a rare cerebrovascular disease that affects about 5 in 1 million people each year and accounts for 0. Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare disease with the incidence about 34 cases per 1 million adults, and twothirds of patients are female. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is an important cause of stroke in young adults. It is an uncommon type of clot, affecting about 1500 people in the united states per year. Its clinical presentation is variable and diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion in conjunction with neuroradiological diagnostic support. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is rare and accounts for 0. As the patients father had factor v leiden deficiency, she was referred for imaging to detect cerebral venous thrombosis.
Cerebral venous thrombosis radiology reference article. They can lead to severe headaches, confusion, and strokelike symptoms. Deep cerebral vein thrombosis radiology reference article. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is a blood clot of a cerebral vein in the brain. Data from large international registries published in the past two decades have greatly improved our knowledge. Diagnosis and management of cerebral venous thrombosis stroke. Symptoms may include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body, and seizures. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis postgraduate medical.
In comparison, deep venous thrombosis dvt of the lower extremity is approximately 250 times as common. They often coexist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. If blood collects in this vein, it will begin to leak. May 26, 2001 we reported the case of a woman aged 36 years with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis cvst who presented with clinical and neuroradiological features of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Aug 18, 2017 cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is an important cause of stroke in young adults. Local thrombolytic therapy in deep cerebral venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous thrombosis venous sinus thrombosis cortical vein thrombosis relatively rare cause of stroke thrombosis, reduce death and improve functional outcome. Methods inpatients at johns hopkins hospital from 2005 to.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage sah is a rare presentation of cerebral venous. Safety and efficacy of dabigatran etexilate vs dose. Mechanisms of thrombosis maureane hoffman, md, phd professor of pathology. Recommendations on the evaluation and management of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and in the pediatric population are provided. Main outcomes and measures primary outcome was a composite of patients with a new vte recurrent cvt, deep vein thrombosis of any limb, pulmonary embolism, and splanchnic vein thrombosis or major bleeding during the study period. We reported the case of a woman aged 36 years with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis cvst who presented with clinical and neuroradiological features of subarachnoid haemorrhage. In newborns, the most common cause for the clot is an infection, typically an infection of the inner ear otitis, the bone behind the ear mastoiditis, the mouth, face, or neck, as well. The etiology is multifactorial and the presentation is variable, with diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion. Cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis cvt is a type of cerebrovascular disease marked by thrombosis of blood in cerebral veins, or dural sinuses, and, in rare cases, cortical veins. A subsequent autopsy revealed thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus and cortical veins. Cerebral vein thrombosis in behcets disease sciencedirect. This vein is responsible for draining blood from the brain.
An algorithm for diagnosis and management of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is described. Diagnosis and management of cerebral venous thrombosis. Diagnosis and treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis. The syndrome of intracranial venous and sinus thrombosis termed as cerebral venous thrombosis. Diagnosis is missed because of the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and etiological factors. Neurological and cognitive longterm outcome in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis cvt can occur after neurosurgical instrumentation, particularly after surgeries that are interhemispheric, include sagittal sinus instrumentation, or involve a subtemporal approach. Normally, blood is transported through arteries into the brain, where it delivers oxygen and nutrients. Sylaja3 department of medicine, university of alberta, edmonton, t6g0t1, canada. Safety and efficacy of dabigatran etexilate vs doseadjusted. Cvt is a type of stroke where the thrombosis occurs in the venous side of the brain circulation, leading to occlusion of one or more cerebral veins and dural venous sinus. The current guidelines on cerebral venous thrombosis cvt diagnosis and management were issued by the european federation of neurological societies in 2010 1 and by the american heart association and american stroke society in 2011 2.
Investigating suspected cerebral venous thrombosis the bmj. Treatment unfractionated heparin and lowmolecularweight heparin venous thromboembolism. Blood clotting where it shouldnt or when you dont want it to. Mri and magnetic resonance venography are excellent. There are no studies comparing a policy of screening for thrombophilia with a policy of nonscreening. Background plasma cardiac troponin ctn elevation occurs in acute ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage and can suggest a poor prognosis. Pdf thrombophilia and cerebral vein thrombosis maria.
Sinus and cerebral vein thrombosis may occur in newborns or adults. Anticoagulation for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Causes include hardening of the cerebral arteries, hypertension, complications of syphilis or other infections, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, or. Keywords sinus thrombosis intracranial hemicraniectomy stroke introduction the standard treatment for cerebral venous thrombosis. Symptoms may include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body, and seizures the diagnosis is usually by computed tomography ct scan or magnetic resonance imaging mri to. Get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article. Superior sagittal sinus, transverse, straight and sigmoid sinuses.
However, the recent introduction of noninvasive and highly sensitive diagnostic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging mri, magnetic resonance angiography mra, and computed tomography angiography cta has modified our knowledge of the spectrum of illness associated with cvt. Large sinuses such as the superior sagittal sinus are most frequently involved. European stroke organization guideline for the diagnosis. Therefore, familiarity with international guidelines is important. Cerebral vein thrombosis cvt is a rather uncommon disease. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives.
Cvt is a rare condition 1% of all strokes that is more common in females x3 risk and. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis cvst is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain. Vein of trolard, which is the largest cortical vein that drains into the superior sagittal sinus. They may lead to bleeding into the surrounding brain tissues. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis postgraduate medical journal. A clinical overview find, read and cite all the research you.
Pdf cerebral vein thrombosis misdiagnosed and mismanaged. Survival and recurrent venous thrombosis rates cerebral or noncerebral were compared with those from patients with dvt. Four studies investigated the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis in patients with thrombophilia, all with a considerable sample size varying from 145 to 706. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. A blood clot in the veins that drain the blood from the brain is called a sinus or cerebral vein thrombosis.
Cerebral venous thrombosis neurology clinical practice. Thrombosis of the venous channels in the brain is an uncommon cause of cerebral infarction relative to arterial disease, but it is an important consideration because of its potential morbidity. In comparison, deep venous thrombosis dvt of the lower extremity is. Cerebral venous thrombosis is a treatable and underrecognised cause of a benign intracranial hypertension syndrome, and may also cause focal signs, seizures, and depression of consciousness. The principle pathology of cvt is thrombosis of cerebral veins and the commonest site of origin is believed to be the junction of cerebral veins and larger sinuses.
Diagnosis and management of cerebral venous thrombosis rcp. Identify the anatomic components of the cerebral venous system. Cerebral thrombosis is arterial thrombosis in one of the cerebral arteries. European stroke organization guideline for the diagnosis and.
Apr 12, 2007 the remainder of the clinical examination was normal. The incidence of cvt is estimated nowadays to be 1. Ean guideline cerebral venous thrombosis the european board of. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt refers to thrombus formation in either the deep or superficial venous drainage systems of the brain. Causes include hardening of the cerebral arteries, hypertension, complications of syphilis or other infections, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, or a violent injury. Full text full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a challenging condition because of its variability of clinical symptoms and signs. It is very often unrecognised at initial presentation.
Cerebral vein and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis cerebral vein and cerebral venous sinus thromboses are blood clots that form in the veins that drain the blood from the brain called the sinuses and cerebral veins. Vasculitic large vein vasculitis or thrombotic pathogenesis abnormalities of coagulation or fibrinolytic activity are both wellknown predispositions for causing cerebral vein thrombosis in behcets disease. Treatment and management of venous sinus thrombosis. Longterm prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis. Stack and others published cerebral venous thrombosis. Extensive collateral circulation within the cerebral venous system allows for a significant degree of. Describe the ct and mr imaging features of cerebral venous thrombosis. Considerations for the management of clinical complications seizures, hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension, and neurological deterioration are also summarized.30 1567 1012 485 554 239 540 1291 322 491 917 655 125 1479 860 1319 294 751 1030 666 1037 691 684 689 396 378 785 128 673 183 516 1053 178